Timeline

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The following table shows a partition of the history of Israel into periods, and the major events that happened during these periods.

Notes:

 (1) some of the early dates are vague, and there are differences between scholars. Most of the dates were based on Y. Aharoni.

  (2) The Intermediate Bronze (IB) overlaps the EBIV and MBI.

 


Early Paleolithic 150,000 – 80,000 BC

  • Paleolithic=old stone period, from Greek: Paleos-old, Lithos-stone.

Middle Paleolithic 80,000 – 40,000 BC

upper Paleolithic 40,000 – 16,000 BC

Epi-Paleolithic 16,000 – 8,300 BC

  • Epi – After. Epi-Paleolithic- after the “old stone” (Paleolithic) period.
  • last stage of cave dwelling
  • end of ice age
  • stone age

Neolithic 8,300 -4,500 BC

  • “new” stone age (neo=new, Lithos- stone)
  • start of cities, ceramics, agriculture

Chalcolithic 4,500 – 3,150BC

  • Chalcos – copper in Greek
  • stone and copper
  • establishment of many fortified cities.

Early Bronze (EB) 3,150- 2,200 BC

  • Subdivisions: EBI (3330-3050), EBII-III (3050-2300), EBIV (2300-2200)
  • Emerging of empires in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  • ~2330BC: Pharaoh Pepi I conquest in Israel

Intermediate Bronze (IB) 2,400 -2,000 BC

  • Collapse of big cities, move to smaller settlements

Middle Bronze (MB)  2,200 – 1,550BC

  • Subdivisions: MBI(2200-2000),MBIIa (2000-1750),MBIIb (1750-1550)
  • Under Egyptian rule; clay figures 19th C list Canaanite cities
  • 20th C: war of the northern kings (Genesis 14: 1-2)
  • 1790BC: Hammurabi King of Babylon, ending Sumer and Akkad rule
  • 1648-1540: Hyksos (“foreigners”) raise to power in Egypt; later expelled

Late Bronze (LB) 1,550 -1,200BC

  • Late bronze: I (1550-1300), II (1300-1200)
  • Abraham voyage to Israel (Genesis 20, 1)
  • 1468: Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III conquests; lists cities
  • 1468: Great battle of Megiddo (Egypt -vs- Canaan)
  • 1431,29: Amenhotep II conquests
  • 1350-1400: Amarna letters (Egyptian archive of clay tablets)
  • 1303: Seti I conquest
  • 1286: Ramesses II conquests; Kadesh batlle

Early Israelite 1,200 -1,000BC

  • Iron Age I (1200-1000)
  • 12xx: Israelites invade to Canaan
  • 11xx: Judges rule Israel
  • 11xx: Deborah battle (Joshua 12: 19-23); Dan tribe relocates
  • 11xx Mei-Merom battle (Joshua 11: 13)
  • 1168: Philistines invade and settle along the shores
  • 11xx: Land of Israel divided to the Tribes (Joshua 17-19)
  • 1025-1006: King Saul

Middle/Late Israelite 1,000 -586BC

  • Iron Age IIa (1000-925), II b,c: (925-586)
  • 1006-968: King David
  • 1000: Jerusalem capital of Kingdom
  • 968-928: King Solomon
  • 928: Kingdom splits to Israel & Jehuda
  • 924: Egypt’s Shishak conquest (Kings I 14: 25)
  • 885: Syria’s BenHadad intrusion along the North Jordan valley
  • 841: intrusion of Shalmaneser III marks first Assyrian expedition
  • 800-600: Assyrians gain power and influence
  • 750: Peak in Israelite Kingdom
  • 734-732: intrusion Tiglath-Pileser III (Kings II 15: 29); Israelite Kingdom was severely crippled
  • 724-712: intrusion of Shalmaneser V and Sargon II (Kings II 17: 3); Israelite Kingdom was destroyed and exiled
  • 701: Revolt of Judah against Assyrians; Sancheriv intrusions
  • 587: Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar II intrusion (Jeremiah 34: 7)
  • 587: destroys Jerusalem (King II 24: 12)

Babylonian/Persian 586 -332BC

  • Iron age III: 586-539, Persian: 539-332
  • 586: Exile to Babylon
  • 539: Babylon falls to Persian (under Cyrus the great)
  • 538-445: Exiles return to Zion

Hellenistic 332 -63BC

  • 332-1: Alexander the Great in Israel
  • 276-240: Seleucids and Thalami  wars; Thalami wins control
  • 219-198: Antiochus III conquest; Israel under Hellenistic rule and influence
  • 167: Hasmonaim Revolt; establishment of independent Kingdom
  • 63: Pompeius conquers Israel

Early Roman 63BC- 70AD

  • 37BC-4BC: Herod rules
  • 31BC – Major earthquake in Jordan valley
  • 5BC-30AD: Jesus life (approx dates)
  • 30-27BC – Jesus acts in Galilee
  • 66-74: Jewish Revolt against the Romans
  • 70: Jerusalem and its temple ruined by Titus

Late Roman 70- 324AD

  • 131-135: Bar-Kochva revolt against the Romans
  • 284-305: Diocletian reforms
  • 324: Constantine embraces Christianity; transfers capital
  • wide expansion in population and number of villages

Byzantine 324 – 634AD

  • 5th C – initial spread of Christianity in the Galilee, peaks in 6th C
  • 352 – limited revolt against Romans; Gallus destroys cities in Galilee
  • 363 – Severe earthquake in Galilee and Israel
  • 529, 556 – Samaritans revolts against the Byzantine
  • 614-618 – Persians conquer Israel, return Jerusalem to the Jews for 2 years
  • 627 – Persians defeated in Ninweh, return Israel to Byzantine

Arab 634 -1099

  • Arab Dynasties (Caliphates): Rashidun 632-661, Omayyad 661-750, Abbasid 750-1171
  • 634: Arab victory against the Byzantines in the Holy Land
  • 636: Jerusalem is captured
  • 658: Major earthquake
  • 749: severe earthquake
  • 750: Abbasids conquer Israel
  • 868: Israel and Syria controlled by Egyptian Ahmad ibn Ţũlũn
  • 885-888: Intrusions by Abbasids
  • 906: Abbasids resume control over Israel and Egypt
  • 969-977: The Fatims take Israel
  • 975: Byzantine King John I Tzimiskes conquers Israel for 1 year
  • 1070-1078: The Seljuks take Israel

Crusader 1099-1250AD

  • 1096-1099: First Crusader
  • 1099 : Arrival of Crusaders to the Holy Land
  • 1187: Crusaders defeated in Horns of Hittim
  • 1191: Saladin takes Acre; Crusaders move to the south
  • 1192-1260: Crusaders regain Acre; establish a Kingdom

Mameluk 1250-1517AD

  • 1260: Mongol intrusion; defeated near Ein Jalud (near En Kharod)
  • 1260-1291: decline of the Crusaders Kingdom; Acre is captured (1291)
  • Most of the coastal cities are destroyed by the Mameluk Sultans
  • 1299: Mongols 2nd attempt is successful – capture the land for 4 years
  • 1401-1405 – The Tatars take the land for a short time
  • 1405-1517: Control by the Mameluks

Ottoman 1517 -1920AD

  • 1516: The Turkish Ottomans capture the land
  • 1589-1633: Druze Governor Fakher e-Din and his son rule the Galilee
  • 1720-1775 Daher El-Omar captures Galilee, rebuilds cities
  • 1799: Napoleon takes Jaffa, wins Tabor battle, fails in Acre; retreats
  • 1831: Ibrahim Pasha invades from Egypt; takes Acre
  • 1856: Major earthquake; Tiberias destroyed
  • 1869: German Templars build Haifa Colony

British Mandate 1920- 1948AD

  • 1933: new port opens in Haifa; development in whole area
  • 1948: Israel an independent State

State of Israel 1948AD- present

  • 1967: 6 day war; Israel controls west bank & Golan heights


Archaeological/Historical  References/Links:

  • Carta’s Atlas of the Bible – Y. Aharoni [Carta Jerusalem 1974]

 


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This page was last updated on 3 Jan 2016 (Add Intermediate Bronze period)

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