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  The following table shows a partition of the history of Israel into periods, and the major events that happened during these periods.

   Note that some of the early dates are vague, and there are differences between scholars. Most of the dates were based on Y. Aharoni.

 

  Period Time Start Time End Special Events 
  Early Paleolithic 150,000 BC 80,000 BC
  • Paleolithic=old stone period, from Greek: Paleos - old, Lithos - stone.
  Middle Paleolithic 80,000 BC 40,000 BC  
  upper Paleolithic 40,000   BC 16,000 BC  
  Epi-Paleolithic 16,000  BC 8,300 BC
  • Epi - After. Epi-Paleolithic- after the "old stone" (Paleolithic) period.
  • last stage of cave dwelling
  • end of ice age
  • stone age
  Neolithic 8,300  BC 4,500 BC
  • "new" stone age (neo=new, Lithos- stone)
  • start of cities, ceramics, agriculture
  Chalcolithic 4,500 BC 3150BC
  • Chalcos - copper in Greek
  • stone and copper
  • establishment of many fortified cities.
  Early Bronze (EB) 3150 BC 2200 BC
  • Subdivisions: EBI (3330-3050), EBII-III (3050-2300), EBIV (2300-2200)
  • Emerging of empires in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
  • ~2330BC: Pharaoh Pepi I conquest in Israel
  Middle Bronze (MB) 2200 BC 1550BC
  • Subdivisions: MBI (2200-2000), MBIIa: (2000-1750), MBIIb: (1750-1550)
  • Under Egyptian rule; clay figures 19th C list Canaanite cities
  • 20th C: war of the northern kings (Genesis 14: 1-2)
  • 1790BC: Hammurabi King of Babylon, ending Sumer and Akkad rule
  • 1648-1540: Hyksos ("foreigners") raise to power in Egypt; later expelled
  Late Bronze (LB) 1550 BC 1200BC
  • Late bronze: I (1550-1300), II (1300-1200)
  • Abraham voyage to Israel (Genesis 20, 1)
  • 1468: Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III conquests; lists cities
  • 1468: Great battle of Megiddo (Egypt -vs- Canaan)
  • 1431,29: Amenhotep II conquests
  • 1350-1400: Amarna letters (Egyptian archive of clay tablets)
  • 1303: Seti I conquest
  • 1286: Ramesses II conquests; Kadesh batlle
  Early Israelite 1200 BC 1000BC
  • Iron Age I (1200-1000)
  • 12xx: Israelites invade to Canaan
  • 11xx: Judges rule Israel
  • 11xx: Deborah battle (Joshua 12: 19-23); Dan tribe relocates
  • 11xx Mei-Merom battle (Joshua 11: 13)
  • 1168: Philistines invade and settle along the shores
  • 11xx: Land of Israel divided to the Tribes (Joshua 17-19)
  • 1025-1006: King Saul
  Middle/Late Israelite 1000 BC 586BC
  • Iron Age IIa (1000-925), II b,c: (925-586)
  • 1006-968: King David
  • 1000: Jerusalem capital of Kingdom
  • 968-928: King Solomon
  • 928: Kingdom splits to Israel & Jehuda
  • 924: Egypt's Shishak conquest (Kings I 14: 25)
  • 885: Syria's BenHadad intrusion along the North Jordan valley
  • 841: intrusion of Shalmaneser III marks first Assyrian expedition
  • 800-600: Assyrians gain power and influence
  • 750: Peak in Israelite Kingdom
  • 734-732: intrusion Tiglath-Pileser III (Kings II 15: 29); Israelite Kingdom was severely crippled
  • 724-712: intrusion of Shalmaneser V and Sargon II (Kings II 17: 3); Israelite Kingdom was destroyed and exiled
  • 701: Revolt of Judah against Assyrians; Sancheriv intrusions
  • 587: Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar II intrusion (Jeremiah 34: 7)
  • 587: destroys Jerusalem (King II 24: 12)
  Babylonian/Persian 586 BC 332BC
  • Iron age III: 586-539, Persian: 539-332
  • 586: Exile to Babylon
  • 539: Babylon falls to Persian (under Cyrus the great)
  • 538-445: Exiles return to Zion
  Hellenistic 332 BC 37BC
  • 332-1: Alexander the Great in Israel
  • 276-240: Seleucids and Thalami  wars; Thalami wins control
  • 219-198: Antiochus III conquest; Israel under Hellenistic rule and influence
  • 167: Hasmonaim Revolt; establishment of independent Kingdom
  • 63: Pompeius conquers Israel
  Early Roman 37BC 70AD
  • 37BC-4BC: Herod rules
  • 31BC - Major earthquake in Jordan valley
  • 5BC-30AD: Jesus life (approx dates)
  • 30-27BC - Jesus acts in Galilee
  • 66-74: Jewish Revolt against the Romans
  • 70: Jerusalem and its temple ruined by Titus
  Late Roman 70AD 324AD
  • 131-135: Bar-Kochva revolt against the Romans
  • 284-305: Diocletian reforms
  • 324: Constantine embraces Christianity; transfers capital
  • wide expansion in population and number of villages
  Byzantine 324 AD 634AD
  • 5th C - initial spread of Christianity in the Galilee, peaks in 6th C
  • 352 - limited revolt against Romans; Gallus destroys cities in Galilee
  • 363 - Severe earthquake in Galilee and Israel
  • 529, 556 - Samaritans revolts against the Byzantine
  • 614-618 - Persians conquer Israel, return Jerusalem to the Jews for 2 years
  • 627 - Persians defeated in Ninweh, return Israel to Byzantine
  Arab 634 AD 1099
  • Arab Dynasties (Caliphates): Rashidun 632-661, Umayad 661-750, Abbasids 750-1171
  • 634: Arab victory against the Byzantines in the Holy Land
  • 636: Jerusalem is captured
  • 658: Major earthquake
  • 749: severe earthquake
  • 750: Abbasids conquer Israel
  • 868: Israel and Syria controlled by Egyptian Ahmad ibn Ţũlũn
  • 885-888: Intrusions by Abbasids
  • 906: Abbasids resume control over Israel and Egypt
  • 969-977: The Fatims take Israel
  • 975: Byzantine King John I Tzimiskes conquers Israel for 1 year
  • 1070-1078: The Seljuks take Israel
  Crusader 1099 AD 1250AD
  • 1096-1099: First Crusader
  • 1099 : Arrival of Crusaders to the Holy Land
  • 1187: Crusaders defeated in Horns of Hittim
  • 1191: Saladin takes Acre; Crusaders move to the south
  • 1192-1260: Crusaders regain Acre; establish a Kingdom
  Mamluk 1250 AD 1517AD
  • 1260: Mongol intrusion; defeated near Ein Jalud (near En Kharod)
  • 1260-1291: decline of the Crusaders Kingdom; Acre is captured (1291)
  • Most of the coastal cities are destroyed by the Mamluk Sultans
  • 1299: Mongols 2nd attempt is successful - capture the land for 4 years
  • 1401-1405 - The Tatars take the land for a short time
  • 1405-1517: Control by the Mamluks
  Ottoman 1517 AD 1920AD
  • 1516: The Turkish Ottomans capture the land
  • 1589-1633: Druze Governor Fakher e-Din and his son rule the Galilee
  • 1720-1775 Daher El-Omar captures Galilee, rebuilds cities
  • 1799: Napoleon takes Jaffa, wins Tabor battle, fails in Acre; retreats
  • 1831: Ibrahim Pasha invades from Egypt; takes Acre
  • 1856: Major earthquake; Tiberias destroyed
  • 1869: German Templars build Haifa Colony
  British Mandate 1920AD 1948AD
  • 1933: new port opens in Haifa; development in whole area
  • 1948: Israel an independent State
  State of Israel 1948AD present
  • 1967: 6 day war; Israel controls west bank & Golan heights
         

 

 

Archaeological/Historical  References/Links:

  • Carta's Atlas of the Bible - Y. Aharoni [Carta Jerusalem 1974]

 

 

 

BibleWalks.com - walk with us through the sites of the Holy Land

 

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